GETTING TESTED FOR HIV
THE IMPORTANCE OF TESTING
Sex without the use of an effective HIV prevention tool (such as treatment as prevention, PrEP or condoms) or sharing injecting equipment are all activities that can put you at risk of HIV by allowing bodily fluids (e.g. blood, semen, rectal fluid, pre-ejaculatory fluid (pre-cum) or vaginal fluid) to enter your body, and possibly your bloodstream.
The only way to know your HIV status is through testing. Testing for HIV is important because it enables the individual to know their status, seek treatment and support if necessary and take steps to prevent onward transmission.
Being tested regularly for HIV is simple, quick and made convenient with multiple testing sites in major cities and towns across Australia. Testing is also available through general practitioners.
There are also a number of community-based testing services around the country, including those that are led by peers.
REGULARITY IS KEY
Gay men and other men who have sex with men are recommended to have a comprehensive sexual health check (which tests for HIV, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and syphilis) at least twice a year, and up to four times a year if they are in one or more of these categories:
- have had any condomless anal sex
- have more than 10 sexual partners in 6 months
- participate in group sex
- use crystal meth.
UNDERSTANDING HIV RAPID TESTING
Traditional HIV testing, where blood is drawn and sent to the laboratory for testing can take several days or more to get a result. Rapid Testing uses a pinprick of the finger (or oral fluid, depending on the test) and returns results within 10 to 20 minutes.
Most rapid HIV tests detect HIV antibodies; however, some can also test for the presence of the virus itself. A ‘reactive’ (or preliminary positive) result on a rapid HIV test is not an HIV diagnosis, as rapid HIV tests produce a small number of false positive results. For this reason, a reactive rapid HIV test result must always be confirmed by laboratory tests.
HIV self-testing (also known as home-based testing) is where HIV testing is conducted in the home or similar environment. They use the same technology as rapid HIV tests. The test is a finger-prick blood test. The result is provided within fifteen minutes after performing the test. The first HIV self-test was approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for sale in Australia in November 2018. For more information see the AFAO HIV Self-test Fact Sheet.
There is currently only one HIV self-test approved for sale in Australia. It is important to only use devices approved for sale, so that you can be sure the result is accurate and that the device is safe to use.
WHERE TO TEST
You can find details for a range of clinics where you can get tested, including public sexual health clinics, on the Drama Downunder, Ending HIV and Time to Test websites. Although these websites are targeted to gay men and other men who have sex with men, most testing services listed on these websites see all people. The Ending HIV and Time to Test websites also indicate which services offer rapid testing.
Sexual health clinics provide free and confidential testing services. You can download the Register of Public Sexual Health Clinics from here.
If you feel more comfortable being tested by a gay friendly doctor, your local AIDS Council can advise you on where to find one.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people can find details of where to test on the Better to Know website.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
The process of becoming HIV positive is referred to as seroconversion. When this occurs, some people exhibit signs and symptoms known as a ‘seroconversion illness’. While they may be easy to overlook, signs may include a rash, fever, aching body, fatigue or a simple persistent flu-like illness.
It is important to note that many people do not present symptoms shortly after exposure to HIV. For this reason, it is important to test regularly in order to be aware of your HIV and sexual health status as often as possible.